Every year the population is growing at a rapid pace, and water resources are decreasing. Experts predict that by 2050 people's need for water will double, although today in many countries people do not have access to water. According to the UN, about 2 billion people in the world are experiencing a permanent water shortage.
Water - the most common resource on the planet, but it is not all suitable for drinking and watering plants. For these purposes, only fresh water is suitable, the concentration of salts in which does not exceed 0.1%. Scientists estimate the volume of fresh water in nature no more than 3%. Such water is contained in the mainland reservoirs, rivers, streams and freshwater lakes, as well as in groundwater. At the same time, 90% of fresh water reserves are stored in the form of ice. In the world, fresh water is unevenly distributed. In Europe and Asia, only 39% of the river waters are located. In these countries, 70% of the world's population lives.
The largest renewable water resources are concentrated in Brazil - 8,233, 00 km³. The leader in the concentration of surface water resources in Europe is Russia. For example, in Lake Baikal 80% of fresh water reserves are concentrated, that is 20% of the world's water reserves, and the total number of reserves is estimated at 4,508.00 km². Closes the top three US leaders - 3,069.00 km³.